The steroid hormone estrogen regulates many functionally unrelated processes in numerous tissues. Although it is traditionally thought to control transcriptional activation through the classical nuclear estrogen receptors, it also initiates many rapid nongenomic signaling events. We found that of all G protein-coupled receptors characterized to date, GPR30 is uniquely localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it specifically binds estrogen and fluorescent estrogen derivatives. Activating GPR30 by estrogen resulted in intracellular calcium mobilization and synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in the nucleus. Thus, GPR30 represents an intracellular transmembrane estrogen receptor that may contribute to normal estrogen physiology as well as pathophysiology.