The R-Enantiomer of Ketorolac Delays Mammary Tumor Development in Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Polyoma Middle T Antigen (MMTV-PyMT) Mice. Academic Article uri icon


  • Epidemiologic studies report improved breast cancer survival in women who receive ketorolac (Toradol) for postoperative pain relief compared with other analgesic agents. Ketorolac is a racemic drug. The S-enantiomer inhibits cyclooxygenases; R-ketorolac is a selective inhibitor of the small GTPases Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) and cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), which are signaling molecules up-regulated during breast cancer progression and metastasis. The goal of this study was to determine whether R-ketorolac altered breast cancer development in the mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T-antigen model. Mice were administered ketorolac orally at 1 mg/kg twice daily to approximate the typical human dose. Mammary glands were analyzed for tumor number and immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and differentiation. R-ketorolac treatment significantly reduced mammary epithelial proliferation, based on Ki67 staining, and suppressed tumor development. Proliferative mammary epithelium from R-ketorolac-treated mice displayed greater differentiation, based on significantly higher total E-cadherin and decreased keratin 5 staining than epithelium of placebo-treated mice. No differences were detected in estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, β-catenin, or vimentin expression between placebo and R-ketorolac treatment groups. These findings indicate that R-ketorolac treatment slows tumor progression in an aggressive model of breast cancer. R-ketorolac may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach for breast cancer prevention or treatment based on its pharmacologic activity as a Rac1 and Cdc42 inhibitor.Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • December 2018