Distribution and characterization of estrogen receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 in the rat central nervous system.
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The G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR 30) has been identified as the non-genomic estrogen receptor, and G-1, the specific ligand for GPR30. With the use of a polyclonal antiserum directed against the human C-terminus of GPR30, immunohistochemical studies revealed GPR30-immunoreactivity (irGPR30) in the brain of adult male and non-pregnant female rats. A high density of irGPR30 was noted in the Islands of Calleja and striatum. In the hypothalamus, irGPR30 was detected in the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus. The anterior and posterior pituitary contained numerous irGPR30 cells and terminal-like endings. Cells in the hippocampal formation as well as the substantia nigra were irGPR30. In the brainstem, irGPR30 cells were noted in the area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; a cluster of cells were prominently labeled in the nucleus ambiguus. Tissue sections processed with pre-immune serum showed no irGPR30, affirming the specificity of the antiserum. G-1 (100 nM) caused a large increase of intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca(2+) ](i) in dissociated and cultured rat hypothalamic neurons, as assessed by microfluorometric Fura-2 imaging. The calcium response to a second application of G-1 showed a marked homologous desensitization. Our result shows a high expression of irGPR30 in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, hippocampal formation, and brainstem autonomic nuclei; and the activation of GPR30 by G-1 is associated with a mobilization of calcium in dissociated and cultured rat hypothalamic neurons.