ATP Binding Cassette C1 (ABCC1/MRP1)-mediated drug efflux contributes to disease progression in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
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In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), multidrug resistance is often mediated by ATPase Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins, which principally involve ABCB1 (multidrug resistance 1, MDR1) and ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1, MRP1). However, direct comparisons between the differential effects of ABCB1 and ABCC1 have been difficult, since identical cell lines with differential expression of these transporters have not been developed.In this study, we developed and compared the biological profiles of Jurkat cell lines that selectively over-expressed ABCB1 and ABCC1. Vincristine (VCR) plays an important role in the treatment of T-lineage ALL (T-ALL), and is often the first drug given to newly-diagnosed patients. Because of its importance in treatment, we provided escalating, sub-lethal doses of VCR to Jurkat cells, and extended our observations to expression profiling of newly diagnosed patients with T-ALL.We found that VCR-resistant cells over-expressed ABCC1 nearly 30-fold. The calcein AM assay confirmed that VCR-resistant cells actively extruded VCR, and that ABCC1-mediated drug resistance conferred a different spectrum of multidrug resistance than other T-ALL induction agents. siRNA experiments that blocked ABCC1 export confirmed that VCR resistance could be reversed in vitro. Analyses of T-lymphoblasts obtained from 92 newly diagnosed T-ALL patients treated on Children's Oncology Group Phase III studies 8704/9404 showed that induction failure could be explained in all but one case by the over-expression of ABCB1 or ABCC1.Taken together, these results suggest that over-expression of ABC transporters plays a contributing role in mediating treatment failure in T-ALL, and underscore the need to employ alternate treatment approaches in patients for whom induction failed or for those with relapsed disease.