Introduction of D-phenylalanine enhanced the receptor binding affinities of gonadotropin-releasing hormone peptides. Academic Article uri icon


  • The purpose of this study was to examine whether the introduction of D-Phe could improve the GnRH receptor binding affinities of DOTA-conjugated D-Lys(6)-GnRH peptides. Building upon the construct of DOTA-Ahx-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH1) we previously reported, an aromatic amino acid of D-Phe was inserted either between the DOTA and Ahx or between the Ahx and D-Lys(6) to generate new DOTA-D-Phe-Ahx-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH) or DOTA-Ahx-D-Phe-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH) peptides. Compared to DOTA-Ahx-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH1) (36.1 nM), the introduction of D-Phe improved the GnRH receptor binding affinities of DOTA-D-Phe-Ahx-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH) (16.3 nM) and DOTA-Ahx-D-Phe-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH) (7.6 nM). The tumor targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of (111)In-DOTA-Ahx-D-Phe-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH) was determined in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer-xenografted nude mice. Compared to (111)In-DOTA-Ahx-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH1), (111)In-DOTA-Ahx-D-Phe-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH) exhibited comparable tumor uptake with faster renal and liver clearance. The MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer-xenografted tumors were clearly visualized by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using (111)In-DOTA-Ahx-D-Phe-(D-Lys(6)-GnRH) as an imaging probe, providing a new insight into the design of new GnRH peptides in the future.Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • January 1, 2014