Piroxicam and cisplatin in a mouse model of peritoneal mesothelioma.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of piroxicam, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, alone and in combination with cisplatin (CDDP), on cell growth of mesothelioma cells.Cell proliferation, cell cycle analysis, and microarray technology were done on MSTO-211H and NCI-H2452 cells treated with piroxicam. Moreover, the effects of piroxicam and CDDP on tumor growth and survival of mouse xenograft models of mesothelioma were determined.Piroxicam treatment of MSTO-211H and NCI-H2452 cells resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that there was an increase in the rate of apoptosis in MSTO-211H cells and an increase in the cells accumulating in G2-M in NCI-H2452. Moreover, a marked tumor growth inhibition and an extended survival of mice treated with a combination of piroxicam and CDDP in MSTO-211H cell-induced peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed. Last, GeneChip array analysis of MSTO-211H mesothelioma cell line revealed that piroxicam treatment caused up-regulation of metabolic pathway-associated genes and down-regulation of genes related to RNA processing apparatus. Of note, epidermal growth factor receptor, one of the new biological targets of chemotherapy for mesothelioma, was down-regulated and HtrA1, a serine protease recently shown to be an endogenous mediator of CDDP cytotoxicity, was up-regulated following piroxicam treatment both in vitro and in vivo.These data suggest that piroxicam sensitizes mesothelioma cells to CDDP-induced cytotoxicity by modulating the expression of several target genes. Therefore, piroxicam in combination with CDDP might potentially be useful in the treatment of patients with mesothelioma.