Callyspongiolide Is a Potent Inhibitor of the Vacuolar ATPase.
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Callyspongiolide is a marine-derived macrolide that kills cells in a caspase-independent manner. NCI COMPARE analysis of human tumor cell line toxicity data for synthetic callyspongiolide indicated that its pattern of cytotoxicity correlated with that seen for concanamycin A, an inhibitor of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). Using yeast as a model system, we report that treatment with synthetic callyspongiolide phenocopied a loss of V-ATPase activity including (1) inability to grow on a nonfermentable carbon source, (2) rescue of cell growth via supplementation with Fe2+, (3) pH-sensitive growth, and (4) a vacuolar acidification defect visualized using the fluorescent dye quinacrine. Crucially, in an in vitro assay, callyspongiolide was found to dose-dependently inhibit yeast V-ATPase (IC50 = 10 nM). Together, these data identify callyspongiolide as a new and highly potent V-ATPase inhibitor. Notably, callyspongiolide is the first V-ATPase inhibitor known to be expelled by Pdr5p.