Conditional Effects of Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drugs (APEDs) Use on Mood in Powerlifters and Bodybuilders. Academic Article uri icon


  • Risk factors for steroid mood effects are unclear and few studies have examined drugs used concurrently with steroids (e.g., stimulants) or emotion regulation deficits that may have unique mood effects. We examined effects of steroid use, stimulant use, and history of mood, trauma, or anxiety disorders on mood in 130 men via online survey. Both steroid and stimulant use had few unique effects on mood. However, stimulant use was associated with increased negative affect and decreased automatic positive thoughts among individuals with a history of mood, trauma, or anxiety disorders. Results highlight the importance of patient differences in steroid effects.