Resting state and task-induced deactivation: A methodological comparison in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.
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Changes in the default mode network (DMN) have been linked to multiple neurological disorders including schizophrenia. The anticorrelated relationship the DMN shares with task-related networks permits the quantification of this network both during task (task-induced deactivations: TID) and during periods of passive mental activity (extended rest). However, the effects of different methodologies (TID vs. extended rest) for quantifying the DMN in the same clinical population are currently not well understood. Moreover, several different analytic techniques, including independent component analyses (ICA) and seed-based correlation analyses, exist for examining functional connectivity during extended resting states. The current study compared both methodologies and analytic techniques in a group of patients with schizophrenia (SP) and matched healthy controls. Results indicated that TID analyses, ICA, and seed-based correlation all consistently identified the midline (anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus) and lateral parietal cortex as core regions of the DMN, as well as more variable involvement of temporal lobe structures. In addition, SP exhibited increased deactivation during task, as well as decreased functional connectivity with frontal regions and increased connectivity with posterior and subcortical areas during periods of extended rest. The increased posterior and reduced anterior connectivity may partially explain some of the cognitive dysfunction and clinical symptoms that are frequently associated with schizophrenia.2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.