New treatments for diabetic retinopathy.
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Diabetic retinopathy is the major cause of vision loss in middle-aged adults. Alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is the hallmark of diabetic retinopathy and, subsequently, hypoxia may result in retinal neovascularization. Tight control of systemic factors such as blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids is essential in the management of this disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important factors responsible for alteration of the BRB. The introduction of anti-VEGF agents has revolutionized the therapeutic strategies used in people with diabetic retinopathy, and the use of laser therapy has been modified. In the present article, we examine the clinical features and pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and review the current status of new treatment recommendations for this disease, and also explore some possible future therapies.© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.