Signs and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in trauma survivors: a matched comparison with classic sleep apnea patients.
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Chronic posttraumatic sleep disturbance may include sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), but this disorder of sleep respiration is usually not suspected in trauma survivors. Sleep breathing signs and symptoms were studied in 178 adults-all with SDB-including typical sleep clinic patients (N = 89) reporting classic snoring and sleepiness and crime victims (N = 89) with insomnia and posttraumatic stress. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were common between groups. Sleep breathing complaints, loud snoring, marked obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea were prevalent in sleep clinic patients; crime victims reported more insomnia, nightmares, poor sleep quality, leg jerks, cognitive-affective symptoms, psychotropic medication usage, and less snoring but more upper airway resistance syndrome. Both groups reported high rates of fatigue or sleepiness, nocturia, morning dry mouth, and morning headaches. Awareness of these clinical features might enhance detection of SDB among trauma survivors.