Prevalence of diabetes is higher among female than male Zuni indians.
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Test the hypothesis that diabetes and related risk factors are more common among female than male Zuni Indians.We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey of the Zuni Indians aged > or =5 years. We used households within neighborhood clusters as the sampling frame. We administered a questionnaire, collected blood and urine, and measured height and weight. Self-reported diabetes was used to assess previously diagnosed diabetes. Participants without a prior history of diabetes were classified as having newly diagnosed diabetes if they had HbA(1c) >7.0% or random glucose > or =11.1 mmol/l during the survey.The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes among Zuni Indians aged > or =5 years (n = 1,503) was higher among female Zuni Indians (16.7% [95% CI 14.1-19.3]) than male Zuni Indians (9.7% [7.4-12.1]) (P < 0.001). The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was similar among female Zuni Indians (2.4% [1.4-3.4]) and male Zuni Indians (2.4% [1.2-3.6]). The prevalence of previously and newly diagnosed diabetes was higher among female Zuni Indians (19.1% [16.4-21.9]) than male Zuni Indians (12.2% [9.5-14.8]) (P < 0.001). The prevalence of obesity was higher among female Zuni Indians (34.3% [30.9-37.7]) than male Zuni Indians (21.5% [18.4-24.7]) (P < 0.001). Obesity was associated with diabetes among female and male Zuni Indians. Physical inactivity was more common among female Zuni Indians (44.2% [40.7-47.8]) than male Zuni Indians (35.1% [31.5-38.7]) (P < 0.001). However, physical inactivity was not associated with diabetes among either female or male Zuni Indians. Gestational diabetes was a risk factor among female Zuni Indians.Among the Zuni Indians, the prevalence of diabetes was 57% higher among female than male members of the population. Culture, tradition, and lifestyle differences may contribute to the higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity among female Zuni Indians.