- The Zuni Indians of New Mexico are experiencing an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Zuni Pueblo created the Zuni Kidney Project (ZKP) to decrease the burden of CKD in the community. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of CKD among Zuni Indians using National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative criteria. The ZKP conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of CKD and related risk factors among Zuni Indians aged > or =20 yr (n = 1113). GFR was estimated using equations based on serum creatinine, and urine albumin:creatinine ratio was calculated in a single spot urine sample. ESRD counts were obtained from health care providers. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of CKD among the Zuni Indians was >2.5-fold higher than that among the US composite population. The estimated prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 combined was three- to four-fold higher than that of CKD stages 3 and 4 combined. This ratio was significantly higher than that in the US composite population (1.4-fold). The prevalence of CKD stage 5 was eight-fold higher among the Zuni Indians than among the composite US population. The Zuni Indians have an expanded pool of CKD that contributes to the high burden of ESRD. The high prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 provides a unique opportunity to develop innovative treatment programs to reduce the burden of CKD in Zuni Pueblo.