The association of family history of liver cancer with hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in the United States.
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The study aimed at addressing the connection between positive family history of liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in the USA.At The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 347 patients with pathologically confirmed HCC and 1075 healthy controls were studied. All subjects were interviewed for their family history of cancer, including the number of relatives with cancer, the type of cancer, the individual's relationship with the relative, and the age at which the relative was diagnosed.Independently of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), a history of liver cancer in first degree relatives was significantly associated with HCC development (AOR=4.1 [95% CI, 1.3-12.9]). Multiple relatives with liver cancer were only observed among HCC patients with chronic HBV/HCV infection. Affected siblings with liver cancer is significantly associated with HCC development with and without HBV/HCV infection; (AOR=5.7 [95% CI, 1.2-27.3]) and (AOR=4.3 [95% CI, 1.01-20.9]), respectively. Individuals with HBV/HCV and a family history of liver cancer were at higher risk for HCC (AOR=61.9 [95% CI, 6.6-579.7]).First degree family history of liver cancer is associated with HCC development in the USA. Further research exploring the genetic-environment interactions associated with risk of HCC is warranted.