Sleep and fatigue symptoms in children and adolescents with CKD: a cross-sectional analysis from the chronic kidney disease in children (CKiD) study.
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Although symptoms of sleepiness and fatigue are common in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), little is known about the prevalence of these symptoms in children with CKD.Cross-sectional analysis within a cohort study.We describe the frequency and severity of sleep problems and fatigue and assess the extent of their association with measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 301 participants of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort.Sleep and fatigue-related items from the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Scales and the CKD-related Symptoms List were used.Median mGFR was 42.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (25th-75th percentiles, 31.2-53.2), and median age was 13.9 years (25th-75th percentiles, 10.8-16.2). Children with mGFR of 40-<50, 30-<40, or <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had 2.07 (95% CI, 1.05-4.09), 2.35 (95% CI, 1.17-4.72), and 2.59 (95% CI, 1.15-5.85) higher odds of having more severe parent reports of low energy than children with mGFR > or = 50 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Compared with participants with mGFR > or = 50 mL/min/1.73 m(2), those with mGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had 3.92 (95% CI, 1.37-11.17) higher odds of reporting more severe weakness, and those with mGFR of 40-<50 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had 2.95 (95% CI, 1.26-6.88) higher odds of falling asleep during the day. Low energy, trouble sleeping, and weakness were associated with lower HRQOL scores.Symptoms of sleep and fatigue represent the child's or parent's perception of symptom severity, whereas individual items can lead to imprecise measurements of sleep and fatigue.Lower mGFR was associated with increased weakness, low energy, and daytime sleepiness. Furthermore, a strong association between trouble sleeping, low energy, and weakness with decreases in overall HRQOL was observed. Detection and treatment of poor sleep and fatigue may improve the development and HRQOL of children and adolescents with CKD.Copyright 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.