- Antibodies targeting epitopes within the amino terminus of the minor capsid protein L2 of human papillomavirus (HPV) are broadly neutralizing against diverse HPV isolates. We have constructed bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines that display short L2 peptides and elicit high-titer and broadly protective antibody responses. Here, we further characterize two additional features of these VLP-based vaccines; the longevity of protection and the role of endogenous and exogenous adjuvants on the magnitude and characteristics of the antibody response. We show that vaccinated mice have long-lived antibody responses against L2, persisting over 18 months after vaccination. Vaccinated mice were strongly protected against infection by diverse HPV pseudoviruses over a year after immunization. We also show that exogenous and endogenous adjuvants (LPS and encapsidated single-stranded RNA) have minor effects on antibody titers. Immunization with VLPs containing encapsidated ssRNA predominantly shifts the response to a Th1, rather than a Th2-like response. Importantly, immunization with L2-VLPs (without endogenous and exogenous adjuvants) in the presence of alum hydroxide elicited a robust antibody response.Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.