Integrating brain and behavior: evaluating adolescents' response to a cannabis intervention.
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Client language (change talk [CT] and counterchange talk [CCT]) is gaining increasing support as an active ingredient of psychosocial interventions. Preliminary work with adults suggests that there may be a neural basis for this. With a diverse sample of adolescent cannabis users, we evaluated the influence of CT and CCT on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response during an fMRI cannabis cue-exposure paradigm. We also investigated how BOLD activation related to treatment outcomes. Adolescent cannabis users (N = 43; 83.7% male; 53.5% Hispanic; M age = 16 years) were presented with CT and CCT derived from their prescan intervention session during the fMRI paradigm. Additionally, BOLD activation during CT (vs. CCT) was tested as a predictor of 1-month follow-up cannabis use behavior (frequency of cannabis use, cannabis problems, cannabis dependence). We observed a significant interaction, with greater activation during CT (vs. CCT) during the cannabis (but not control) cues in several areas key to self-referential processes (uncorrected p < 0.001; medial frontal gyrus, insula). Furthermore, BOLD activation during CT (vs. CCT) during cannabis (but not control) cues in areas that underlie introspection (posterior cingulate, precuneus) was significantly related to youths' 1-month follow-up cannabis use behavior (frequency of cannabis use, cannabis problems, cannabis dependence; uncorrected p < 0.001). These data indicate a unique interaction pattern, whereby CT (vs. CCT) during the cannabis (but not control) cues was associated with significantly greater activation in brain areas involved in introspection. Further, this activation was related to significantly better treatment outcomes for youth.2013 APA, all rights reserved