- Display of epitopes on virus-like particles (VLPs) is a highly effective technique for enhancing the immunogenicity of antigens that are poorly immunogenic in their native context. VLP-based vaccines can be used to elicit long-lasting, high-titer antibody responses against diverse target antigens, even self-antigens. Most VLP platform-based vaccines are rationally engineered; specific target epitopes or domains are arrayed so that they are displayed at high-valency on the surface of VLPs. In this review, we describe an alternate technique for vaccine discovery using VLPs. This strategy, analogous to filamentous phage display, allows bacteriophage VLP-based vaccines to be identified from a vast library of potential vaccines by affinity selection. This technology integrates epitope discovery and immunization functions into a single platform.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.