Exercise Intervention Improves the Metabolic Profile and Body Composition of Southwestern American Indian Adolescents.
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The Southwestern American Indian population carries a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity, placing this group at higher risk than the general population for developing early type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, likely impacting overall lifespan. This study aims to evaluate the impact of early lifestyle interventions which promote healthy eating and regular exercise on risk factors contributing to the development of the metabolic syndrome among the adolescent Zuni Pueblo population.We describe a prospective, single site, community-based cohort study performed among sixty-five adolescent Zuni Indians aged 13.9 ± 1.7 years who were recruited between March 2011 and January 2014. The study intervention consisted of a targeted, tri-weekly exercise regimen with nutritional counselling, and the primary study outcomes included changes from baseline in metabolic profile (fasting lipids, A1c), vital signs (blood pressure, resting heart rate) and anthropometric characteristics of the study group.41 participants have anthropometric data measured at baseline and after completion, biochemical data are available from 30 participants, and body composition data from 26 patients. Using the paired Student's t-test with Bonferroni correction, significant improvements were shown in pediatric BMI percentile, fasting lipid profile, A1C, total body fat, and fat free mass after six months of exercise and nutritional intervention.A simple, standardized fitness program among Southwest American Indian adolescents was effective at reducing fasting lipids and adiposity, as well as improving glycemic indices over the course of six months.