Optoelectronics and Nanophotonics of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown GaSe van der Waals Nanoribbons.
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2D/layered semiconductors are of interest for fundamental studies and for applications in optoelectronics and photonics. Work to date focused on extended crystals, produced by exfoliation or growth and investigated by diffraction-limited spectroscopy. Processes such as vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth carry potential for mass-producing nanostructured van der Waals semiconductors with exceptionally high crystal quality and optoelectronic/photonic properties at least on par with those of extended flakes. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis, structure, morphology, and optoelectronics/photonics of GaSe van der Waals nanoribbons obtained by Au- and Ag-catalyzed VLS growth. Although all GaSe ribbons are high-quality basal-plane oriented single crystals, those grown at lower temperatures stand out with their remarkably uniform morphology and low edge roughness. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows intense, narrow light emission at the GaSe bandgap energy. Nanophotonic experiments demonstrate traveling waveguide modes at visible/near-infrared energies and illustrate approaches for locally exciting and probing such photonic modes by cathodoluminescence in transmission electron microscopy.