Work impairment in bipolar disorder patients--results from a two-year observational study (EMBLEM). Academic Article uri icon


  • To explore factors associated with work impairment at 2 years following an acute episode.European Mania in Bipolar disorder Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) is a prospective, observational study on the outcomes of patients with a manic/mixed episode. Work impairment was measured using a Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (slice of LIFE) item and patients were categorised with either low or high work impairment at each observation. Baseline factors associated with work impairment at 2 years were assessed using multivariate modelling.At baseline (n=2289), 69% of patients had high work impairment. At 2 years (n=1393), high impairment reduced to 41%. Modelling identified rapid cycling as the strongest disease-related factor associated with high work impairment at 2 years, although high work impairment at baseline had the strongest association overall. Lower levels of education, recent admissions, CGI-BP overall severity in the 12 months prior to baseline and CGI-BP mania at baseline all predicted higher work impairment. Living together in a relationship and independent housing were both significantly associated with having low work impairment at 2 years.Work impairment in bipolar disorder is maintained over long periods, and is strongly associated with relationship status, living conditions and various disease-related factors.Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • October 2010