- The simultaneous presentation of both manic and depressive symptoms has long been recognized. Nevertheless, a variable prevalence of dysphoric mania has been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dysphoric mania among hospitalized patients and to assess the effectiveness of olanzapine in this type of patients.Eighty-six patients who met DSM-IV criteria for mania were evaluated at admission with a protocol that included McElroy's criteria for dysphoric mania [Am. J. Psychiatry 149 (1992) 1633]. Treatment was administered according to clinical need, using mood stabilizers combined with antipsychotics. Sequential assessments were conducted throughout the study.Forty-four patients (51.2%) fulfilled McElroy's criteria for dysphoric mania. Fourteen of these dysphoric patients were treated with olanzapine in combination with mood-stabilizers. All patients improved in manic symptoms but patients treated with olanzapine improved significantly more than those treated with other antipsychotics in depressive symptoms.The lack of randomization is a methodological limitation of this study, so these findings should be considered as preliminary.Dysphoric symptoms are common in this population of manic patients. Olanzapine in combination with mood-stabilizers may be effective in these patients. Additional controlled studies are needed to replicate these results.