Late onset neonatal acute kidney injury: results from the AWAKEN Study.
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Most studies of neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI) have focused on the first week following birth. Here, we determined the outcomes and risk factors for late AKI (>7d).The international AWAKEN study examined AKI in neonates admitted to an intensive care unit. Late AKI was defined as occurring >7 days after birth according to the KDIGO criteria. Models were constructed to assess the association between late AKI and death or length of stay. Unadjusted and adjusted odds for late AKI were calculated for each perinatal factor.Late AKI occurred in 202/2152 (9%) of enrolled neonates. After adjustment, infants with late AKI had higher odds of death (aOR:2.1, p = 0.02) and longer length of stay (parameter estimate: 21.9, p < 0.001). Risk factors included intubation, oligo- and polyhydramnios, mild-moderate renal anomalies, admission diagnoses of congenital heart disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, surgical need, exposure to diuretics, vasopressors, and NSAIDs, discharge diagnoses of patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and urinary tract infection.Late AKI is common, independently associated with poor short-term outcomes and associated with unique risk factors. These should guide the development of protocols to screen for AKI and research to improve prevention strategies to mitigate the consequences of late AKI.