Associations between Intensity of RRT, Inflammatory Mediators, and Outcomes.
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Critically ill patients requiring RRT have higher circulating plasma concentrations of inflammatory and apoptosis markers that are associated with subsequent RRT dependence and death. Whether intensive dosing of RRT is associated with changes in specific mediators is unknown.A multicenter, prospective, cohort study of 817 critically ill patients receiving RRT ancillary to the Veterans Affairs/National Institutes of Health Acute Renal Failure Trial Network study was conducted between November 2003 and July 2007. Plasma inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor) and apoptosis (TNF receptor-I [TNFR-I], TNFR-II, and death receptor-5) biomarkers on days 1 and 8 were examined after initiation of intensive RRT. Whether intensive RRT, given day 1 biomarkers, is associated with RRT independence and lower mortality at day 60 was also examined.Overall, no differences were found in day 8 biomarker concentrations between intensive and less-intensive RRT groups. When adjusted for day 1 biomarkers and clinical variables, intensive RRT was not associated with renal recovery (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 1.14) or mortality (adjusted OR, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.64). Use of intensive RRT, however, was associated with lower day 8 concentrations when day 1 plasma IL-6, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and TNFR-I concentrations were high (interaction P value for all markers, <0.01). In contrast, day 8 marker concentrations were higher when day 1 levels were low (P<0.01). Elevated biomarker concentrations on day 8 among 476 participants were associated with lower renal recovery (adjusted OR range, 0.19-0.87) and higher mortality (adjusted OR range, 1.26-3.18).Among critically ill patients receiving RRT, intensive dosing of RRT has variable association with biomarker concentration and no association with renal recovery and mortality. However, elevated concentrations of inflammatory and apoptosis markers on day 8 of RRT were associated with RRT dependence and death.Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.