Evaluation of Safety of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Patients With Multiple Metastases: Findings From the NRG-BR001 Phase 1 Trial.
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Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for oligometastases is hypothesized to improve survival and is increasingly used. Little evidence supports its safe use to treat patients with multiple metastases.To establish safety of SBRT dose schedules in patients with 3 to 4 metastases or 2 metastases in close proximity to each other.This phase 1 trial opened on August 4, 2014, and closed to accrual on March 20, 2018. Metastases to 7 anatomic locations were included: bone/osseous (BO), spinal/paraspinal (SP), peripheral lung (PL), central lung (CL), abdominal-pelvic (AP), mediastinal/cervical lymph node (MC), and liver (L). Six patients could be enrolled per anatomic site. The setting was a consortium of North American academic and community practice cancer centers participating in NRG Oncology trials. Patients with breast, prostate, or non-small cell lung cancer with 3 to 4 metastases or 2 metastases in close proximity (≤5 cm) amenable to SBRT were eligible for this phase 1 study. Statistical analyses were performed from December 31, 2017, to September 19, 2019.The starting dose was 50 Gy in 5 fractions (CL, MC), 45 Gy in 3 fractions (PL, AP, L), and 30 Gy in 3 fractions (BO, SP).The primary end point was dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) defined by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, as specific adverse events (AEs) of grades 3 to 5 (definite or probable per the protocol DLT definition) related to SBRT within 180 days of treatment. Dose levels were considered safe if DLTs were observed in no more than 1 of 6 patients per location; otherwise, the dose at that location would be de-escalated.A total of 42 patients enrolled, 39 were eligible, and 35 (mean [SD] age, 63.1 [14.2] years; 20 men [57.1%]; 30 White patients [85.7%]) were evaluable for DLT. Twelve patients (34.3%) had breast cancer, 10 (28.6%) had non-small cell lung cancer, and 13 (37.1%) had prostate cancer; there was a median of 3 metastases treated per patient. Median survival was not reached. No protocol-defined DLTs were observed. When examining all AEs, 8 instances of grade 3 AEs, most likely related to protocol therapy, occurred approximately 125 to 556 days from SBRT initiation in 7 patients.This phase 1 trial demonstrated the safety of SBRT for patients with 3 to 4 metastases or 2 metastases in close proximity. There were no treatment-related deaths. Late grade 3 AEs demonstrate the need for extended follow-up in long-surviving patients with oligometastatic disease. Treatment with SBRT for multiple metastases has been expanded into multiple ongoing randomized phase 2/3 National Cancer Institute-sponsored trials (NRG-BR002, NRG-LU002).ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02206334.