- The simultaneous presentation of manic and depressive symptoms in the same patient is fairly common. The terms and have been used as equivalents to mixed states. Pharmacotherapy is less effective in this group of patients. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of olanzapine as an add-on therapy in patients with bipolar disorder with a rapid cycling course during a dysphoric mania episode. Thirteen patients treated with mood stabilizers for at least 1 year and diagnosed with a mixed episode were included in an open trial. All had at least 4 episodes in the last year. Patients with organic diseases, including altered thyroid function, were excluded from the research. Patients were evaluated at inclusion and at day 28. Response was defined as a decrease of 50% in the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression concomitant with a Clinical Global Impression improvement of 1 or 2. All patients completed the study. The doses of olanzapine were 16.15 +/- 5.82 mg/day. There was a reduction in the manic and depressive symptoms in all patients. Ten of the 13 patients were considered to have responded to the treatment according to the response definition. Adverse effects included somnolence (23.08%) and weight gain (0.81 +/- 1.96 kg in women, 2.20 +/- 2.28 kg in men). Our results suggest that olanzapine combined with mood stabilizers is safe and effective in the treatment of the manic and the depressive symptoms of dysphoric mania with a rapid cycling course.