Home-Based Kidney Care, Patient Activation, and Risk Factors for CKD Progression in Zuni Indians: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.
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The burden of CKD is greater in ethnic and racial minorities and persons living in rural communities, where access to care is limited.A 12-month clinical trial was performed in 98 rural adult Zuni Indians with CKD to examine the efficacy of a home-based kidney care program. Participants were randomized by household to receive usual care or home-based care. After initial lifestyle coaching, the intervention group received frequent additional reinforcement by community health representatives about adherence to medicines, diet and exercise, self-monitoring, and coping strategies for living with stress. The primary outcome was change in patient activation score, which assesses a participant's knowledge, skill, and confidence in managing his/her own health and health care.Of 125 randomized individuals (63 intervention and 62 usual care), 98 (78%; 50 intervention and 48 usual care) completed the 12-month study. The average patient activation score after 12 months was 8.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 15.5) points higher in the intervention group than in the usual care group after adjusting for baseline score using linear models with generalized estimating equations. Participants randomized to the intervention had 4.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 16.7) times the odds of having a final activation level of at least three ("taking action") than those in the usual care group. Body mass index declined by 1.1 kg/m2 (P=0.01), hemoglobin A1c declined by 0.7% (P=0.01), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein declined by 3.3-fold (P<0.001), and the Short-Form 12 Health Survey mental score increased by five points (P=0.002) in the intervention group relative to usual care.A home-based intervention improves participants' activation in their own health and health care, and it may reduce risk factors for CKD in a rural disadvantaged population.Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.