Rates and predictors of developing a manic or hypomanic episode 1 to 2 years following a first hospitalization for major depression with psychotic features. Academic Article uri icon

start page

  • 173

end page

  • 185


  • Although the presence of psychosis during major depression has been identified as a predictor of later developing mania or hypomania, to our knowledge there have been no studies examining rates and predictors of developing a manic or hypomanic episode in patients who were admitted for their first psychiatric hospitalization for major depressive disorder with psychosis (MDDP).Patients admitted for their first psychiatric hospitalization, with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) diagnosis of MDDP, were recruited from three sites (N = 157) and evaluated prospectively for up to 2 years to identify new symptoms of mania or hypomania. Family history was assessed using the Family History-Research Diagnostic Criteria Interview. Clinical and demographic factors associated with developing a manic or hypomanic episode were identified using stepwise logistic regression.Thirteen percent (n = 21) of patients with MDDP developed mania or hypomania within the follow-up period. Family history of affective disorders and age at onset of MDDP were not predictive of switch. MDDP patients who were treated with antidepressants were four times less likely to develop mania or hypomania than those who were not treated with antidepressants, after controlling for site differences.Our findings suggest that within the first 1 to 2 years following first hospitalization for MDDP, a subset of patients will develop mania or hypomania. Additionally, our data suggest that antidepressant exposure does not increase the risk of, and may be protective against, developing a manic or hypomanic episode in patients hospitalized for MDDP.

date/time value

  • 2003

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1089/104454603322163899

PubMed Identifier

  • 12880511


  • 13


  • 2


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Antidepressive Agents
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Depressive Disorder, Major
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • Psychiatric Department, Hospital
  • Survival Analysis