Plasma metabolomic profiles in different stages of CKD.
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CKD is a common public health problem. Identifying biomarkers adds prognostic/diagnostic value by contributing to an understanding of CKD at the molecular level and possibly defining new drug targets. Metabolomics provides a snapshot of biochemical events at a particular time in the progression of CKD. This cross-sectional metabolomics study ascertained whether plasma metabolite profiles are significantly different in CKD stages 2, 3, and 4.An analysis of plasma metabolites, using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, was conducted on 30 nondiabetic men ages 40-52 years, with 10 participants each in CKD stages 2, 3, and 4 based on their estimated GFR (calculated by the Modified Diet in Renal Disease formula). Participants were recruited in late 2008, and plasma samples were tested at Metabolon Inc and analyzed in 2012.Comparison of stage 3/stage 2 identified 62 metabolites that differed (P ≤ 0.05), with 39 higher and 23 lower in stage 3 compared with stage 2; comparisons of stage 4/stage 2 identified 111 metabolites, with 66 higher and 45 lower; and comparisons of stage 4/stage 3 identified 11 metabolites, with 7 higher and 4 lower. Major differences in metabolite profiles with increasing stage of CKD were observed, including altered arginine metabolism, elevated coagulation/inflammation, impaired carboxylate anion transport, and decreased adrenal steroid hormone production.Global metabolite profiling of plasma uncovered potential biomarkers of stages of CKD. Moreover, these biomarkers provide insight into possible pathophysiologic processes that may contribute to progression of CKD.