RNA editing events in mitochondrial genes by ultra-deep sequencing methods: a comparison of cytoplasmic male sterile, fertile and restored genotypes in cotton.
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Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait resulting in failure to produce functional pollen and is widely used in the production of hybrid seed. Improper RNA editing is implicated as the molecular basis for some CMS systems. However, the mechanism of CMS in cotton is unknown. This study compared RNA editing events in eight mitochondrial genes (atp1, 4, 6, 8, 9, and cox1, 2, 3) among three lines (maintainer B, CMS A, and restorer R). These events were quantified by ultra-deep sequencing of mitochondrial transcripts and sequencing of cloned versions of these genes as cDNAs. A comparison of genomic PCR and RT-PCR products detected 72 editing sites in coding sequences in the eight genes and four partial editing sites in the 3'-untranslated region of atp6. The most frequent alteration (61.4 %) resulted in changes of hydrophilic amino acids to hydrophobic amino acids and the most common alteration was proline (P) to leucine (L) (26.7 %). In atp6, RNA editing created a stop codon from a glutamine in the genomic sequence. Statistical analysis of the frequencies of RNA editing events detected differences between mtDNA genes, but no differences between cotton cytoplasms that could account for the CMS phenotype or restoration. This study represents the first work to use next-generation sequencing to identify RNA editing positions and efficiency, and possible association with CMS and restoration in plants.