Proteomic Characterization of Dermal Interstitial Fluid Extracted Using a Novel Microneedle-Assisted Technique.
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As wearable fitness devices have gained commercial acceptance, interest in real-time monitoring of an individual's physiological status using noninvasive techniques has grown. Microneedles have been proposed as a minimally invasive technique for sampling the dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) for clinical monitoring and diagnosis, but little is known about its composition. In this study, a novel microneedle array was used to collect dermal ISF from three healthy human donors and compared with matching serum and plasma samples. Using a shotgun quantitative proteomic approach, 407 proteins were quantified with at least one unique peptide, and of those, 135 proteins were differently expressed at least 2-fold. Collectively, these proteins tended to originate from the cytoplasm, membrane bound vesicles, and extracellular vesicular exosomes. Proteomic analysis confirmed previously published work that indicates that ISF is highly similar to both plasma and serum. In this study, less than one percent of proteins were uniquely identified in ISF. Taken together, ISF could serve as a minimally invasive alternative for blood-derived fluids with potential for real-time monitoring applications.