Programmed cell death in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with yttrium-90 and doxorubicin-loaded beads. Academic Article Case Study uri icon

start page

  • 1537

end page

  • 42.e2


  • Molecular analysis of apoptosis and autophagy pathways was performed from a single hepatocellular carcinoma treated with yttrium-90 and doxorubicin-loaded beads before resection and compared with normal liver tissue from the margins. Both bead formulations activated apoptosis-associated mechanisms and increased autophagy pathway protein levels. Increased DNA fragmentation and autophagy markers were seen in tumor treated with drug-eluting beads compared with yttrium-90-treated tumor. These results suggest that both microembolic therapies activate cell death signaling, although differences in apoptosis and autophagy pathways were seen in this patient. Knowledge of mechanisms of action for each treatment may enhance future therapeutic strategies.© SIR, 2013.

date/time value

  • October 2013

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jvir.2013.06.011

PubMed Identifier

  • 24070510


  • 24


  • 10


  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Autophagy
  • Capsules
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
  • Chemoradiotherapy
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Doxorubicin
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Yttrium Radioisotopes