12-step facilitation for the dually diagnosed: a randomized clinical trial. Academic Article uri icon


  • There are few clinical trials of 12-step treatments for individuals with serious mental illness and alcohol or drug dependence. This randomized trial assessed the effects of adding a 12-session 12-step facilitation therapy (TSF), adapted from that used in Project MATCH, to treatment as usual in an outpatient dual diagnosis program. Participants were 121 individuals dually diagnosed with alcohol dependence and a serious mental disorder, followed during 12 weeks of treatment and 36 weeks post-treatment. Participants receiving TSF had greater participation in 12-step programs, but did not demonstrate greater improvement in alcohol and drug use. However, considered dimensionally, greater participation in TSF was associated with greater improvement in substance use, and greater 12-step participation predicted decreases in frequency and intensity of drinking. Findings suggest that future work with TSF in this population should focus on maximizing exposure to TSF, and maximizing the effect of TSF on 12-step participation.Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

publication date

  • April 2014