A Longitudinal Study of Multiple Drug Use and Overdose Among Young People Who Inject Drugs.
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To determine the association between multiple drug use and nonfatal overdose among young people (younger than 30 years) who inject drugs.We completed a longitudinal study of 173 injection drug users younger than 30 years living in San Francisco, California, between April 2012 and February 2014.The odds of nonfatal overdose increased significantly as heroin and benzodiazepine pill-taking days increased and when alcohol consumption exceeded 10 drinks per day compared with 0 drinks per day.Heroin, benzodiazepine, and alcohol use were independently associated with nonfatal overdose over time among young people who inject drugs. Efforts to address multiple central nervous system depressant use remain an important component of a comprehensive approach to overdose, particularly among young people. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print March 17, 2016: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303084).