Orthostatic proteinuria and the spectrum of diurnal variability of urinary protein excretion in healthy children.
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The aim of this study was to characterize the 24-h and diurnal variability of urinary protein excretion and identify the prevalence of orthostatic proteinuria (OP) in healthy children. Upright, supine, and 24-h total urinary protein (UrTP) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) were measured in 91 healthy children ages 6-19 years. Urinary protein and creatinine excretions were calculated and examined by gender, age, Tanner stage, and body mass index (BMI). Orthostatic proteinuria (OP) was defined as a 24-h UrTP >100 mg/m(2) with a normal supine UrTP (<4 mg/m(2)/h). There exists a marked diurnal variability in UrTP. The upright UrTP rate was three to four-times greater than the supine rate. UrTP, adjusted for body surface area, is higher in boys than girls and increases with age and BMI. There is a similar increase in upright CrCl compared with supine. Urinary protein to creatinine ratio (UPcr) is strongly correlated with UrTP. OP is common, being found in 20% of children in this cohort, and is more common in boys and associated with age >10 years and BMI >85%. In children with OP, a first morning UPcr shows a value in the normal range, whereas a random daytime UPcr is elevated. There exists a diurnal variability in urinary protein excretion that is exaggerated in participants with OP. UPcr reliably estimates 24-h UrTP. Using current pediatric criteria, OP is very common, particularly in boys. A normal first morning UPcr ratio indicates that a child with elevated random urinary protein has OP.