213Bi-[DOTA0, Tyr3]octreotide peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of pancreatic tumors in a preclinical animal model.
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The somatostatin analogue [DOTA0, Tyr3]octreotide (DOTATOC) has previously been labeled with low linear energy transfer (LET) beta-emitters, such as 177Lu or 90Y, for tumor therapy. In this study, DOTATOC labeled with the high-LET alpha-emitter, 213Bi, was evaluated.The radiolabeling, stability, biodistribution, toxicity, safety, and therapeutic efficacy of 213Bi-DOTATOC (specific activity 7.4 MBq/microg) were investigated. Biodistribution studies to determine somatostatin receptor specificity were done in Lewis rats at 1 and 3 hours postinjection. Histopathology of various organs was used to evaluated toxicity and safety. Therapeutic efficacy of 4 to 22 MBq 213Bi-DOTATOC was determined in a rat pancreatic carcinoma model.Radiolabeling of the 213Bi-DOTATOC was achieved with radiochemical purity >95% and an incorporation yield > or = 99.9%. Biodistribution data showed specific binding to somatostatin receptor-expressing tissues. Administration of free 213Bi, compared with 213Bi-DOTATOC, resulted in higher radioactivity accumulation at 3 hours postinjection in the kidneys [34.47 +/- 1.40% injected dose/g (ID/g) tissue versus 11.15 +/- 0.46%, P < 0.0001] and bone marrow (0.31 +/- 0.01% ID/g versus 0.06 +/- 0.02%, P < 0.0324). A significant decrease in tumor growth rate was observed in rats treated with >11 MBq of 213Bi-DOTATOC 10 days postinjection compared with controls (P < 0.025). Treatment with >20 MBq of 213Bi-DOTATOC showed significantly greater tumor reduction when compared with animals receiving <11 MBq (P < 0.02).213Bi-DOTATOC showed dose-related antitumor effects with minimal treatment-related organ toxicity. No acute or chronic hematologic toxicities were observed. Mild, acute nephrotoxicity was observed without evidence of chronic toxicity. 213Bi-DOTATOC is a promising therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for further evaluation.