- Trans fatty acids (TFAs) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are present in dairy products and human milk and can have detrimental and beneficial effects in humans. The content of TFAs and CLAs in milk is determined largely by the diet of the mother.We compared the proportions of TFAs and CLAs in the milk of rural Fulani in northern Nigeria who consume dairy products to that of women living in an urban center who consume little in the way of dairy products. Lactating Fulani women (n=41) and women residing in the city of Jos, Nigeria (n=41) were recruited into the study. We predicted that the milk of the Fulani pastoralists would contain higher amounts of TFAs and CLAs compared to their urban counterparts.The mean total TFA proportions for the Fulani and urban women were 0.22% and 0.34%, respectively, and were not significantly different. The percentages of CLAs in milk fat were not different between rural and urban women (0.16% vs 0.14%). These TFA and CLA values were 4- to 10-fold lower than for milk of women elsewhere in the world.The percentages of TFAs and CLAs in milk were not different between rural and urban dwellers in northern Nigeria whose diets differ greatly in the amounts of dairy products they contain. However, the fact that the percentages of TFAs and CLAs in the milk of Nigerian women were much lower than the percentages reported from other parts of the world may have implications for the long-term growth and development of infants in the northern Nigeria and elsewhere in the Western Sahel.